IN PRAISE OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES

By Ray Fosterrlf@mt-rushmore.net

 

 IN PRAISE OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES"Let food be your medicine andlet medicine be your food"HippocratesCarbohydrates have been given"bad press":Misinformation 1:CARBOHYDRATES ARE FATTENING!

  • FACT 1. - UNREFINED CARBOHYDRATES are the key to weight control - NATURALLY.
  • FACT 2. - UNREFINED CARBOHYDRATES are the key to appetite & the satiation center.
  • FACT 3. - UNREFINED CARBOHYDRATES are the key to protective PHYTOCHEMICALS
  • FACT 4. - UNREFINED CARBOHYDRATES are the key to diabetic nutritional control.

 WHAT ARE CARBOHYDRATES?

  • All organic molecules (components of living things) are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in the carbohydrate molecule is the same as for water. The formula of most of these compounds may be expressed as Cm(H2O)nThe term carbohydrate means "watered carbon".

 WHOLE FOOD HAS THESE COMPONENTS:

  • 1. ENERGY NUTRIENTS:
    • FATS
    • PROTEINS
    • CARBOHYDRATES
  • 2. FIBER for BULK & TRANSPORT
  • 3. MICRONUTRIENTS:
    • VITAMINS
    • MINERALS
    • PHYTOCHEMICALS

In contrast to whole foods, refined foods are a "stripped down" version of food that contains only parts of the energy nutrients.  For example, fish, fowl, and meat contains only fats and proteins - no carbohydrates and no fiber and almost no micronutrients except those that are in the blood of the creature. 
 CARBOHYDRATE IS THE PLANT ENERGY STORAGE MOLECULE

  • Starch is the chief storage form of carbohydrates in plants. These large complex molecules were designed for animal food.
  • Fat is the food energy storage form for animals. Mankind and animals have very limited carbohydrates stored in the form of glucose in the liver. Proteins are not stored.
  • Proteins are never deficient in an adequate caloric diet. Excess protein must be eliminated. Prolonged excess protein intake leads to kidney disease and eventually failure.

 EXAMPLES OF COMMON CARBOHYDRATES:

  • The carbohydrate group consists principally of:
    • sugar
    • starch
    • dextrin
    • cellulose
    • glycogen
  • These substances constitute an important part of the human diet and that of many animals.

 CARBOHYDRATES COME FROM PHOTOSYNTHESISPhotosynthesis is the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis in green plants harnesses the energy of sunlight to convert carbon dioxide, water, and minerals into organic compounds and gaseous oxygen. PHOTOSYNTHESIS & DIGESTION

  • PHOTOSYNTHESIS CO2 + H2O + minerals SUNLIGHT -> ORGANIC COMPOUNDS + O2

Thus our world is filled with wholesome food as a result of photosynthesis.  This is an object lesson illustrating spiritual truth: 

  • GOD’S FREE GRACE FILLS THE WORLD WITH FOOD
  •  DIGESTION COMPLEX MOLECULES -> SIMPLE MOLECULES -> ABSORBED INTO BLOOD STREAM -> metabolism -> complex carbohydrates

  This is also an object lesson illustrating spiritual truth:

  • FOOD IS NOT AVAILABLE TO US UNLESS WE PUT IT IN OUR MOUTHS AND CHEW AND SWALLOW!

 CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTIONCarbohydrates in whole food are eaten primarily in the form of larger molecules, such as starch (the chief storage form of carbohydrates in plants), from which the smaller sugars eventually are produced by the actions of intestinal enzymes (oligosaccharidases), such as maltase, which splits maltose to glucose; lactase, which splits lactose (milk sugar) to glucose and galactose; and sucrase, which splits sucrose (table sugar) to glucose and fructose. COMPLEX AND SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES

  • Complex Carbohydrates:
  • Starch = glucose+glucose+glucose+glucose etc. (alpha 1-4 linkages)
  • "Smaller sugars":
  • Maltose = glucose+glucose (maltase)
  • Lactose = glucose+galactose (lactase)
  • Sucrose (table sugar) + glucose+fructose (sucrase)

 CELLULOSE

  • Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate, or polysaccharide, consisting of 3,000 or more glucose units (Beta linkages).
  • The basic structural component of plant cell walls:
    • 33 percent of all vegetable matter
    • 90 percent of cotton
    • 50 percent of wood is cellulose
    • Cellulose is the most abundant of all naturally occurring organic compounds.
  •  

MILK INTOLERENCEWhile talking about the enzymes that break down sugar in the intestines, we will mention one condition in passing.  Because the body usually absorbs the single unit sugars (glucose, galactose, and fructose), if the enzyme is lacking in the digestive tract to break the complex sugar down, it is not absorbed.  In the gut, the bacteria feed on it and this causes many unpleasant effects.  When the lactose enzyme, lactase, is absent then milk intolerence is experienced.

  • Lactase deficiency is common, occurring in up to 20 percent of North American whites, and 50 to 90 percent of Blacks and Asians. Although hereditary, this disorder usually does not show symptoms until after infancy. Abdominal fullness, nausea, and cramping pain with watery diarrhea follow the intake of milk products containing lactose.

 REASONS FOR AVOIDING REFINED CARBOHYDRATESRefined carbohydrates are the "stripped down" version of food that have lost their fiber and micronutrients.  For this reason they are rapidly absorbed because they are presented to the body almost ready for absorption, but do not have the micronutrients that are necessary for using (metabolising or "burning") the sugar by the body.

  • 1. Depletes body stores of B1
  • 2. Promotes dental caries - reduces internal circulation of the tooth + culture of bacteria
  • 3. Depression of immune system (white blood cell function is depressed by elevated blood glucose levels)
  • 4. Elevate blood fats (conversion of glucose to triglycerides)
  • 5. Hypoglycemia and insulin fatigue (pancreatic islet cells)
  • 6. Gastric irritation and constipation

 ADVANTAGES OF UNREFINED CARBOHYDRATES

  • 1. Satiation factor - bulk is filling
  • 2. High fiber diet:
    • 1. Increases intestinal bulk and speed
    • 2. Avoids constipation - natural stool softener
    • 3. Sweeps out bowel toxins (hormones & cholesterol)
  • 3. Phytochemicals in unrefined plant foods.
  • 4. Difficult to get too many calories with unrefined food.

Rx HOW TO CONTROL WEIGHT:

  • 1. Eat a hearty carbohydrate breakfast and a well-balanced dinner early in the day.
  • 2. Eat nothing between meals.  Drinking plenty of water between meals keeps you hydrated and improves your immune system function.
  • 3. Skip supper or limit it to one apple if you are overweight.
  • 4. Exercise 20 - 30 minutes 3 - 5 days a week.

 Carbohydrates: Secret of Weight ControlCarbohydrates:

  • Low in calories: 4/gram vs 9/gram for fats.
  • Complex carbohydrates are high in fiber filling the stomach and giving a sensation of satiation.
  • Sets the metabolic appetite control (appestat).
  • Sets the metabolic heat control.

 Sources of Carbohydrates:(percentages of calories)

  • Plant Products:  Fat     Carbohydrate
    • Apple                     5                 94
    • Banana                 5                 91
    • Peach                   2                 92
    • Veg. baked beans 4                 89
    • Black beans          4                 72
    • Broccoli                 8                 75
    • Baked potato        1                 93
    • Macaroni              4                 86

 Sources of Carbohydrates:(percentages of calories)

  • Animal Products:  Fat     Carbohydrate
    • Top loin                  40                     0
    • Top round               29                     0
    • Halibut                    19                     0
    • Chicken, skinless    23                     0
    • Roasted chicken     51                     0
    • Short loin                 64                     0
    • Turkey, skinless      18                     0
    • Salmon, Chinook     52                     0

 HORMONE - CARBOHYDRATE CONNECTION

  • Physiological Heat Setting Control - Body Thermostat: (metabolism)
  • Thyroid gland -> T4 -> T3 (turns up the thermostat higher body temperature) promoted by dietary carbohydrates.
  • T4 -> reverse T3 (turns down the thermostat) promoted by low carbohydrate, starvation or low calories in the diet.
  • Norepinephrine increased by carbohydrates -> faster metabolism.

 PHYTOCHEMICALSPhytochemicals come to you as a "free bonus" when you eat unrefined whole plant foods that are rich in natural carbohydrates.  The phytochemicals are a natural part of the whole food.  They are largely lost by processing or refining food.  Whole plant foods are best eaten fresh.  They may be preserved by drying or freezing without losing much of the phytochemicals.

  • Plant flavonoids (from onions and soy) have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. Phytoestrogens and trace minerals may also be beneficial in the atherosclerotic process. Circulation, June 3, 1997;95(11):2591- 2593.
  • Nonfermented soybeans have high levels of phytoestrogens and other phytochemicals that appear to have beneficial effects against hormone-dependent cancers in animals. CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, November/December, 1996;46(6):325-341.

PHYTOCHEMICALS

  • Over 200 epidemiologic studies have shown that fruit and vegetable consumption lowers cancer risk. The safest public health policy seems to advocate an increased intake of intact plant foods. "Cancer Prevention: Epidemiology and Experiment," Potter, John D., Cancer Letters, 1997;114:7-9.
  • Soluble and insoluble fiber and phytochemicals such as catechins, nonvitamin A precursor carotenoids, diallyl sulfides, flavonoids, and polyphenols promote health. "Future Vitamin and Antioxidant RDAs for Health Promotion," Lachance, Paul, A., Ph.D., D.Sc., Preventive Medicine, 1996;25: 46-47.

 Carotenoids & Genistein

  • Carotenoids:
    • Found in Carrots and beets
    • Protects the lining of vessels & retards plaque.
    • Protects against strokes, heart attacks, and diabetic neuropathy.
  • Genistein (an isoflavone):
    • Found in soybeans
    • Anti-angiogenic (prevents cancer vascular growth); very high affinity for binding estrogen receptors.

 FLAVENOIDS & SULFORAPHANE->Phase II Enzymes

  • Flavols:
    • Found in oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruits.
    • Protect the eyes from sun damage by protecting the epithelial cells surrounding the eye lens and help prevent cataracts.
  • Sulforaphane boosts synthesis of Phase II Enzymes:
    • broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, kale, turnips
    • Attach carcinogens from inside cells carrier -> waste


PHYTOCHEMICALSprotect the body against:

  • 1. Vascular diseases - heart attacks, strokes, gangrene etc.
  • 2. Cancer
  • 3. Cataracts

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